Welcome to the Ettenhofer Laboratory for Neurocognitive Research. Our mission is to aid in the development of improved methods for assessing and treating traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to identify factors underlying successful vs. unsuccessful recovery. Our approach is guided by scientific and clinical foundations within psychology and cognitive neuroscience, along with a desire to leverage technology to bolster progress in military medicine and public health. Recent areas of emphasis include: enhanced measurement of attention and executive functions using eye tracking; identification of patterns of neural activity associated with brain injury using combined fMRI with eye tracking; evaluation of medical and psychological factors contributing to post-concussive symptoms and functional outcomes; and standardized assessment and rehabilitation of driving abilities using virtual reality simulation. Our team of students, staff, fellows, and volunteers embodies our commitment to excellence through their ongoing efforts to achieve each of these goals.
MAJ George Zeckler, MHA (U.S. Army) is a 4th year student working towards a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at USUHS. George earned a B.A. in Psychology from Florida Southern College in 1998. After college, he commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Army's Medical Service Corps and served as a medical platoon leader while assigned to an Armor battalion in the Republic of South Korea, a healthcare administrator within an Army medical center, a hospital company commander, and a Combat Support Hospital operations officer while deployed to Iraq. In 2005, George earned a Master's of Health Administration from Baylor University and was given the military occupational specialty of Hospital Administrator. The following four years he served as the Chief of Clinical Operations for military treatment facilities in Heidelberg, Germany and Fort Drum, New York. At USUHS, George's research focuses on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-concussive symptoms, including their etiology, maintenance, comorbidity with psychological symptoms, and treatment among soldiers and combat veterans. His dissertation will focus on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and reported post-concussive symptoms in MTBI. George has completed practica at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, the Washington, D.C. Veterans Administration Medical Center (Primary Care Behavioral Health), and St. Luke's House in Bethesda, Maryland. His current practicum is at the Behavioral Health Department, Kimbrough Ambulatory Care Center (Fort Meade, Maryland). George is a student member of the American Psychological Association and achieved Fellow status within the American College of Healthcare Executives. George can be contacted at George.Zeckler@usuhs.edu.
CPT David Barry, B.S., (U.S. Army) is a 3rd year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at USUHS. David attended Vanderbilt University on a Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Scholarship, where he earned his bachelor's degree in Engineering Science in 2006. After college, he commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Army's Corps of Engineers. From 2007-2010, David served as a combat engineer Platoon Leader, Battalion Engineer, and Battalion Logistics Officer (S4) for 1st Battalion, 66th Armored Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division. In addition to duty assignments at Fort Hood, TX and Fort Carson, CO, David served a 12-month combat tour in eastern Baghdad, Iraq from March 2008-March 2009. While deployed, David planned and conducted route clearance missions to clear roads of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and later led construction missions to reinforce key positions in his Battalion's Area of Operations. In the Ettenhofer Lab, David researches methods to identify mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using eye tracking systems. To support this research focus, David co-designed the Bethesda Eye and Attention Measure (BEAM), a computer-based paradigm that seeks to objectively identify cognitive deficiencies associated with traumatic brain injury with the lab's eye tracking hardware. David is also interested in using virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation techniques to help service members recover more effectively. David can be contacted at David.Barry@usuhs.edu.
Lindsay Reinhardt (Civilian) is a 3rd year graduate student working toward a Ph.D. in Medical and Clinical Psychology at USUHS. For her undergraduate studies, Lyn attended U.C. San Diego, where she earned her B.S. in Psychology with a minor in dance. After college, she spent time in various labs as a research assistant, most recently in the Stress and Neuroimaging Lab at the VA Hospital/UC San Diego studying Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Depression and PTSD in returning OEF/OIF veterans. She continues this research at USUHS through the investigation of TBI rehabilitation in the Ettenhofer Neurocognitive Research Lab, with the goal of finding better diagnostic algorithms and optimally individualized treatments. She is involved in collaborations with other labs, including a study of eye-tracking and PTSD at the DC VAMC. Additionally, Lyn is training and assisting in neuroimaging analysis at NICoE (a center for active duty service members with TBI and deployment-related psychological health conditions), where she is working on her Master's thesis looking at neural activation patterns of various cognitive symptoms associated with TBI. Recently, Lyn also began a clinical externship at Johns Hopkins University SoM Outpatient Neuropsychology and Rehabilitation. Lyn can be contacted at Lindsay.Reinhardt@usuhs.edu.
CPT Steven Brewer, M.S., (U.S. Army) is a 2nd year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at USUHS. Steve enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1993, serving in an Infantry Battalion at Fort Stewart, GA; the United Nations camp at PanMunJom, Korea on the 38th Parallel; and in Engineering and Tranportation units at Fort Knox, KY. Leaving the Army in 1999 as a Sergeant, Steve attended Shippensburg University in PA. Steve graduated Summa Cum Laude with a BA in Psychology in 2000 and an MS in Psychology in 2002. During this time, Steve worked as a Program Assistant for clients with a dual diagnosis of Mental Health and Mental Retardation. From 2002 to 2007, Steve worked for the PA Department of Public Welfare as the Quality Assurance/ Risk Management Coordinator for Mental Health Services. He also worked as an Adjunct Instructor at ITT Technical Institute and as a volunteer Social Worker for a homeless shelter. In 2007, Steve rejoined the military as a Medical Service Corps officer as a Distinguished Graduate of the Officer Candidate School (OCS). He worked as the Medical and Battalion (S3) Operations Officer for 188th Brigade Support Battalion, 18th Field Artillery Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, NC from 2007-2009. He then worked as the Command Surgeon for the 1st Sustainment Brigade (Theater), located at Fort Bragg, where he remained deployed most of his time providing medical oversight to 12,000 troops serving both OIF and OEF. Steve is currently working on research projects that are examining traumatic brain injury (TBI) and virtual reality driving simulations. Steve is a member of Psi Chi, the National Honors Society in Psychology, and has presented posters for the Eastern Psychological Association and USUHS Research Week. Steve can be contacted at Steven.Brewer@usuhs.edu.
2LT Kate Lunsford, M.S., (U.S. Army) is a 1st year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student at USUHS. For her undergraduate studies, Kate attended Aurora University in Aurora, IL, where she played soccer for the Spartans and earned a B.A. in Psychology with minors in Chemistry and Physiology in 2010. During her summers in college, she worked as a research intern for Dr. Lee Shaprio's seizure lab at Scott and White Memorial Hospital in Temple, TX. After college, Kate attended Loyola University-Maryland in Baltimore, MD where she pursued her M.S. degree in Clinical Psychology. During her graduate studies, Kate was a neuropsychology research extern, working under Dr. Chris Vaughn and Dr. Gerry Gioa, at Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC. She primarily worked on neuroimaging studies as well as gave ImPACT tests to student athletes in the Maryland-DC-Northern Virginia area at the Safe Concussion Outcome Recovery & Education (SCORE) Clinic. Kate was commissioned in June 2012 as a Second Lieutenant in the US Army. She has presented posters for the American Psychological Association, Midwest Psychological Association, and Scott and White Memorial Hospital. Kate can be contacted at Katherine.Lunsford@usuhs.edu.
Dmitry Mirochnitchenko is a Research Associate and coordinator for Dr. Ettenhofer's laboratory. As a graduate of Rutgers University and Loyola University Maryland, his interest in therapy and teaching is balanced by a fascination with computers and technology, which led to starting his own IT solutions company as a sophomore at Rutgers University. After earning his BS in psychology, Dmitry worked as a high school teacher and IT consultant at an alternative school for mentally and emotionally challenged youth. Later, as a graduate student at Loyola, he coordinated and supported the goals of several laboratories and treatment centers at the Bloomberg School of Public Health and Bayview Medical Center of Johns Hopkins University. After earning his MS in Clinical Psychology, Dmitry took up another project at the Bloomberg School of Johns Hopkins University, to plan and execute the data collection phase of a research proposal involving the integration of novel motion tracking technology with the psychological principles behind the diagnosis of depression, anxiety, and the impact of the environment on the individual. Having accomplished these goals, Dmitry moved on to his current projects at the Ettenhofer Laboratory for Neurocognitive Research where he is engaged in the planning and execution of mission-essential research efforts. These include hardware training, operation, and maintenance, grant and protocol writing, data collection, database management, and other organizational, financial, clerical, and liaison duties.
CPT (P) Jessica Parker, Psy.D. (U.S. Army) is currently a Neuropsychology Fellow at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. She earned her doctorate from Nova Southeastern University in Ft Lauderdale, FL and completed her clinical psychology residency and post doctoral training at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) in San Antonio, TX. Upon completion of her post doc training at the Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic at BAMC, she assumed responsibility as Chief of Psychology Services and Chief of the Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic at Ft Stewart, GA. CPT (P) Parker's clinical and research interests include military psychology, aeromedical psychology, and cognitive performance enhancement.
CPT (P) Tracy L. Durham, Ph.D. (U.S. Army) is currently a Neuropsychology Fellow at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. She received her Ph.D. from Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C. and completed her clinical psychology internship and residency at Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu, HI. After completion of her residency she was stationed at Ft. Campbell, KY as a clinical psychologist with the 212th Medical Detachment and deployed to Mosul, Iraq. After returning from deployment, she worked as a staff psychologist at Ft. Campbell. Her clinical interests include the assessment of deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals and aviation psychology. She is fluent in American Sign Language.
Ettenhofer, M. L. & Barry, D. M. (2012). A Comparison of Long-Term Postconcussive Symptoms between University Students with and without a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury or Orthopedic Injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(3), 451-460.
Matthews, S.C., Strigo, I.A., Simmons, A.N., O'Connell, R.M., Reinhardt, L.E., & Moseley, S.A. (2011). A Multimodal imaging study in U.S. veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom with and without major depression after blast-related concussion. Neuroimage, 54(S1), S69-75.
Strigo, I.A., Simmons, A.N., Matthews, S.C., Grimes, E., Allard, C. B., Reinhardt, L.E., Paulus, M.P., & Stein, M.B. (2010). Neural Correlates of Altered Pain Response in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Intimate Partner Violence. Biological Psychiatry, 68(5), 442-450.
Barry, D., Zeckler, G., Brewer, S., Girard, D., Mirochnitchenko, Reinhardt, L., & Ettenhofer, M. (2012, August). Correlates of a novel eye-tracking assessment: Cognition, depression, traumatic stress, combat exposure, and fatigue. Poster session presented at the 2012 Military Health System Research Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
Barry, D., Girard, D., Mirochnitchenko, D., Zeckler, G., Reinhardt, L., Brewer, S., Landenburger, A., & Ettenhofer, M. (2012, May). Development of the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure (BEAM) to Evaluate Neurocognitive Function. Paper presented at the Uniformed Services University Graduate Programs Research Colloquium, Bethesda, MD.
Zeckler, G., Melrose, R. J., Castellon, S., Okonek, A., & Ettenhofer, M. L. (2012, May). Relationships between Self-Reported Cognitive Deficits and Neuropsychological Findings within a Sample of OIF/OEF Veterans with a History of TBI. Poster presented at Uniformed Services University Research Days, Bethesda, MD.
Brewer, S., Mirochnitchenko, D., Landenburger, A., McCreight, S., Barry, D., Ettenhofer, M. (2012, May). Virtual Reality Driving Assessment of Combat Exposure Effects. Poster Presentation presented at Uniformed Services University Research Week, Bethesda, MD.
Ettenhofer, M. L., Cox, D., Palmer, C., Mirochnitchenko, D., Brewer, S., & Landenburger, A. (2012, May). Assessment and Rehabilitation of Driving Abilities after Traumatic Brain Injury using Virtual Reality. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Zeckler, G., Melrose, R. J., Dellawalla, Z., Ghiam, J., Castellon, S., Okonek, A., & Ettenhofer, M. L. (2011, December). Clinical Correlates of Postconcussive Symptoms among OEF/OIF Veterans with a History of TBI. Poster to be presented at the 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Barry, D., Girard, D., Mirochnitchenko, D., Zeckler, G., Reinhardt, R., & Ettenhofer, M. L. (2011, December). Eye Tracking Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study of the Bethesda Eye and Attention Measure (BEAM). Poster to be presented at the 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Reinhardt, L.E., & Ettenhofer, M.L. (2011, June). Relationship between severity of most recent traumatic brain injury and postconcussive symptoms moderated by number of previous brain injuries. Poster presented at the 164th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Barry, D. M., Mirochnitchenko, D. O., Reinhardt, L. E., Breckenridge, I. A., & Ettenhofer, M. L. (2011, May). Factor structure of long-term postconcussive symptoms in a university population. Poster session presented at Uniformed Services University Research Week, Bethesda, MD.
Barry, D. M., Girard, D. M., Mirochnitchenko, D. O., & Ettenhofer, M. L. (2011, May). The RETiNA project: Eye tracking assessment of neurocognitive status after mild traumatic brain injury. Poster presented at Uniformed Services University Research Week, Bethesda, MD.
Reinhardt, L.E., Simmons, A.N., Strigo, I.A., O'Connell, R.M., & Matthews, S.C. (November 2009). "Differences in FA between combat-related PTSD and non-PTSD veterans with mild TBI," poster presentation by L.E. Reinhardt of joint work at The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies conference, Atlanta, Georgia.
O'Connell, R.M., Simmons, A.N., Moseley, S. A., Reinhardt, L.E., Strigo, I.A., & Matthews, S.C. (November 2009). "Brain basis of major depression after mild blast related traumatic brain injury (mTBI)" poster presentation by R. M. O'Connell of joint work at The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine conference.
Reinhardt, L.E., Ushinsky, A., O'Connell, R.M., Moseley, S.A., Matthews, S.C., Simmons, A.N., & Strigo, I.A. (October 2009). " Subjective perception of brief temperature stimuli in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls following happy and sad mood induction," poster presentation by L.E. Reinhardt of joint work at Society for Neuroscience conference, Chicago, Illinois.