Contact Information

Department of Pathology: Faculty

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Department of Pathology
4301 Jones Bridge Road, C1094
Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4799
Room: B3154
Phone: (301) 295-3450
fax: (301) 295-1640

Clifford M. Snapper, Professor, Department of Pathology

Clifford M. Snapper, M.D.

Curriculum Vitae

Current Research Interests:

The goal of our laboratory is to develop a detailed and integrated model of the immunologic parameters that mediate both protein-specific and polysaccharide-specific in vivo Ig isotype production both to intact bacteria and bacterial vaccines, using the mouse as the model host. A wide range of cellular methodologies are employed including mouse immunizations, bacterial culture, ELISA, flow cytometry, magnetic and electronic cell sorting, adoptive transfer, immunohistochemistry, in vitro cell culture, antibody and other protein purifications, dendritic cell and macrophage isolation and propagation, and antigen presentation assays. Molecular approaches include extensive use of knockout and transgenic mice including creation of new mouse strains, genotyping, and "Real-time" RT-PCR for measurement of cytokine- and chemokine- specific mRNA. Biochemical approaches include exosome isolation, and conjugate vaccine construction.

Selected Publications

Sen, G, Khan, A. Q., Chen, Q., and Snapper, C. M. 2005. In vivo humoral immune responses to isolated pneumococcal polysaccharides are dependent on the presence of associated TLR ligands. J. Immunol. 175:3084.

Khan, A. Q., Sen, G., Guo, S., Witte, O. N., Snapper, C. M. 2006. Induction of CD4+ T cell-dependent IgG anti-polysaccharide (PS) responses to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae or to a soluble pneumococcal PS-protein conjugate is more heavily dependent on Btk-mediated BCR signaling than anti-protein responses. Infect. Immun. 74:1419.

Sen, G., Chen, Q., and Snapper, C. M. 2006. Immunization of aged mice with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine when combined with an unmethylated CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide restores defective IgG anti-PPS14 responses and PspA-specific CD4+ T cell priming to young adult levels. Infect. Immun. 74:2177.

Chen, Q., Sen, G., and Snapper, C. M. 2006. Endogenous IL-1R1 is critical for cognate, but not non-cognate, CD4+ T cell help for induction of both type 1 and type 2 humoral immunity in response to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Immunol. 177:6044.

Colino, J., and Snapper, C. M. 2007. Dendritic cell derived exosomes express a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide type 14 cross-reactive antigen that induces protective immunoglobulin responses against pneumococcal infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 75:220.