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USU Dept. of Radiation Biology
You are here:  HOME  >  Research Programs  >  Biodosimetry

Biodosimetry

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Jump to:  Background | Strategic plan | Biological dosimetry papers | 2011 NATO-RTO technical reports
Overview
Mission: Develop rapid, high-precision analytical methods that assess radiation exposure doses from clinical samples and thus aid in the triage and medical management of radiological casualties for military personnel and civilian responders.
Biodosimetry Research Symposium
 
Principal Investigators: William F. Blakely, PhD; David L. Bolduc, PhD; Thomas B. Elliott, PhD; Stuart Hobbs, CPT, USA, PhD; Juliann G. Kiang, PhD; Gregory L. King, PhD; Michael R. Landauer, PhD; Maria Moroni, PhD; Natalia I. Ossetrova, PhD; Adarsh Ramakumar, PhD; Venkaraman Srinivasan, PhD; Mang Xiao, MD
 
Staff: Marsha Anderson, HM1, USN; True M. Burns, MS; Donald Condliffe; Carolyn Fisher, PhD; Dadin Fu, PhD; Risaku Fukumoto, PhD; Esmeralda Gutierrez; Cam T. Ha, PhD; Kevin Hieber; Erin Horton; John E. Karaian; Katya Krasnopolsky; Janeen Lewis; Xianghong (Hong) Li, MS; Virginia Menendez-Morales; Michelle Metrinko; Patrick Ney; Hayley Nordstrom; Dilber Nurmemet; Saule Nurmukhambetova; Neil E. Page, COL, USA, MD; Arifur Rahman, PhD; Merriline Satyamitra, PhD; Joan T. Smith; Melissa Tompkins; Uma Subramanian; Vilmar Villa
 
Objectives
  • Automate, field deployable, biological dosimetry capabilities for rapid battlefield dose assessment
  • Establish reference biological dosimetry for definitive analysis of biological samples from theater operations
  • Identification and validation of biomarkers for late radiation effects
Background
Biodosimetry actions are needed in suspected overexposures.
  • Perform measurements and bioassay, if appropriate, to determine external or internal contamination with radioactivity.
  • Record physical dosimetry measurements, if available.
  • Observe/record prodromal signs/symptoms.
  • Obtain a complete blood cell count with white blood cell differential immediately, and then three times a day for the following 3–6 days.
  • Contact a qualified laboratory to evaluate chromosome-aberration cytogenetic bioassay performance using the "gold standard" dicentric assay (translocation assay for long times after exposure) for dose assessment.
  • Consider other opportunistic dosimetry approaches as available.
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Strategic plan
Integrated biodosimetry & diagnostic systems
Integrated biodosimetry and diagnostic systems
  • No single assay is sufficient to address potential radiation-exposure scenarios that are complex and involve mass casualties.
  • Triage, clinical, and definitive radiation biodosimetry all require multiple bioassays and analytic technologies designed for use in both chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) diagnostics and general medical care.
Clinical/reference laboratory approach
  • Establish multiparameter biological assays for various radiation exposure scenarios because no single assay is sufficient.
  • Optimize protocols and an analysis system for high-throughput applications.
Field-based approach
Radiation patient treatment algorithm
Radiation patient treatment algorithm
  • Identify bioindicator assays for rapid assessment over a broad dose range.
  • Optimize hematological and molecular protocols as well as analysis systems.
  • Validate system using in vivo model studies that meet the requirements of the National Academy of Science and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
  • Develop software for integrated biodosimetry data management.
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Biological dosimetry papers
Jump to: Medical recording and radiation software applications | Cytogenetic biodosimetry | Hematology biodosimetry | Nucleic acid biodosimetry | Proteomic biodosimetry | Urinary biomarkers
General topics
  1. Prasanna PGS, Blakely WF, Bertho JM, Chute JP, Cohen EP, Goans RE, Grace MB, Lillis-Hearne PK, Lloyd DC, Lutgens LCHW, Meineke V, Ossetrova NI, Romanyukha A, Saba JD, Weisdorf DJ, Wojcik A, Yukihara EG, Pellmar TC (2010) Synopsis of partial-body radiation diagnostic biomarkers and medical management of radiation injury workshop. Radiation Research 173(2):245–53.
  2. Blakely WF, Carr Z, Chu M C-M, Dayal-Drager R, Fujimoto K, Hopmeir M, Kulka U, Lillis-Hearne P, Livingston GK, Lloyd DC, Maznyk N, Perez MDR, Romm H, Takashima Y, Voisin P, Wilkins RC, Yoshida MA (2009) WHO 1st Consultation on the Development of a Global Biodosimetry Laboratories Network for Radiation Emergencies (BioDoseNet). Radiation Research 171(1):127–139.
  3. Blakely WF (2008) Early Biodosimetry Response: Recommendations for Mass­Casualty Radiation Accidents and Terrorism. Refresher Course for the 12th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, October 19–24, 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina, accessible at website: http://www.irpa12.org.ar/PDF/RC/RC_12_fullpaper.pdf
  4. Straume T, Amundson SA, Blakely WF, Burns FJ, Chen A, Dainiak N, Franklin S, Leary JA, Loftus DJ, Morgan WF, Pellmar TC, Stolc V, Turteltaub KW, Vaughan AT, Wyrobek AJ (2008). Meeting Report—NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop. September 27–28, 2007. Radiation Research 170:393–405.
  5. Alexander GA, Swartz HM, Amundson SA, Blakely WF, Buddemeier B, Gallez B, Dainiak N, Goans RE, Hayes RB, Lowry PC, Noska MA, Okunieff P, Salner AL, Schauer DA, Trompier F, Turteltaub KW, Voisin P, Wiley AL Jr., Wilkins R (2007) BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):972–996.
  6. Skinner AR, Blakely WF (eds) (2007) Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on EPR Dosimetry and Applications and the 2nd International Conference on Biodosimetry, Bethesda, Md., July 10–13,2006. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):945–1264.
  7. Jarrett DG, Blakely WF, Braley GS, Brook I, Cummings C, Dickerson WE, Francis G, Kirtland SK, Liotta PL, Miller RW, Prasanna PGS, Sedlak RG, Tsu H, Yu CE (2006) Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism. In: Foltin GL, Schonfeld DJ, Shannon MW (eds), Pediatric Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness: A Resource for Pediatricians. AHRQ Publication Nos. 06(07)–0056 and 06(07)-0056-1, October 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
  8. Blakely WF, Buddemeier B, Easterly C, Hartmann-Siantar C, Hoover D, Gondre­Lewis T, Noska MA, Prasanna PGS, Ramakrishnan N, Simon SL, Smith J, Turteltaub K, Wiley A Jr. (Joint Interagency Working Group Participants) (2005) Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program. Washington DC: Department of Homeland Security.
  9. Goans RE, Waselenko JK (2005) Medical management of radiological casualties. Health Physics 89(5):505–512.
  10. Blakely WF, Salter CA, Prasanna PG (2005) Early-response biological dosimetry­ recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Physics 89(5):494–504.
  11. Pellmar TC, Rockwell S, Radiological/Nuclear Threat Countermeasures Working Group (2005) Priority list of research areas for radiological nuclear threat countermeasures. Radiation Research 163:115–123.
  12. Prasanna PGS, Muderhwa JM, Miller AC, Grace MB, Salter CA, Blakely WF (2004) Diagnostic Biodosimetry Response for Radiation Disasters: Current Research and Service Activities at AFRRI. Published in the proceedings of the symposium of the Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel of NATO's Research and Technology Organisation, Budapest, Hungary, April 19–21, 2004. Compact disc: RTO-MP­HFM-108, AC/323(HFM-108)TP/55 (ISBN 92–837-1128-9).
  13. Waselenko JK, MacVittie TJ, Blakely WF, Pesik N, Wiley AL, Dickerson WE, Tsu H, Confer DL, Coleman N, Seed T, Lowry P, Armitage, JO, Dainiak N: Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group (2004) Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Working Group. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(12):1037–1051.
  14. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Luo L, Muderhwa JM, Miner VL, Prasanna PGS (2003) Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight. Advances in Space Research 31(6):1487–1493.
  15. Coleman CN, Blakely WF, Fike JR, MacVittie TJ, Metting NF, Mitchell JB, Moulder JE, Preston RJ, Seed TM, Stone HB, Tofilon PJ, Wong RSL (2003) Molecular and cellular biology of moderate-dose (1–10 Gy) radiation and potential mechanisms of radiation protection. Report of a workshop at Bethesda, Maryland, December 17–18, 2001. Radiation Research 159:812–834.
  16. Blakely WF, van der Schans GP (2002) Introduction to Session 1A: Low-level exposure assessment-biodosimetry. In: Seed TM, Blakely WF, Knudson GB, Landauer MR, McClain DE (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Low-Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures, Bethesda, MD, November 8–10,1999. Military Medicine 167(2):1.
  17. Blakely WF, Prasanna PGS, Miller AC (2002) Update on current and new developments in biological dose-assessment techniques. In: Ricks RC, Berger ME, O'Hara FM Jr. (eds), The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: The Clinical Care of Victims. New York/London: Parthenon Publishing: 23–32.
  18. Blakely WF (2002) Multiple parameter biodosimetry of exposed workers from the JCO critical accident in Tokai-mura. Journal of Radiological Protection 22(1):5–6.
  19. Blakely WF, Prasanna PGS, Miller AC, Director AE, Lofts RS (2000) Development of rapid biodosimetry capability: Use of cytogenetic and molecular biomarkers. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries.
  20. Blakely WF, Seed TM, Prasanna PGS, Carmichael AJ, Ramakrishnan N, Schauer DA, Greenstock CL (1998) Summary of Session IV--Forward-Field Bioindicators for Dose Assessment: Possible Alternatives. In: Reeves GI, Jarrett DG, Seed TM, King GL, Blakely WF (eds) Proceedings: Triage of Irradiated Personnel. Special Publication 98-2. Bethesda, MD: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 2126.
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Medical recording and radiation software applications papers
  1. Sandgren DJ, Salter CA, Levine IH, Ross JA, Lillis-Hearne PK, Blakely WF (2010) Biodosimetry Assessment Tool (BAT) software—Dose prediction algorithm. Health Phys. 99 Suppl 5:S171–183.
  2. Blakely WF, Madrid JP, Sandgren DJ (2010) Biodosimetry medical recording—Use of Biodosimetry Assessment Tool. Health Phys. 99 Suppl 5:S184–191.
  3. Salter CA, Sandgren DJ, Levine IH and Blakely WF (2010) New biodosimetry tools to support mental health in nuclear/radiological accidents or terrorism. In: Bartone PT, Pastel RH, Vaitkus MA (eds.) The 71F Advantage: Applying Army Research Psychology for Health and Performance Gains. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press; 2010: 357–370.
  4. Waller E, Millage K, Blakely WF, Ross JA, Mercier JR, Sandgren DJ, Levine IH, Dickerson WE, Nemhauser JB, Nasstrom JS, Sugiyama G, Homann S, Buddemeier BR, Curling CA, Disraelly DS (2009) Overview of hazard assessment and emergency planning software of use to RN first responders. Health Physics, 97(2):145–156.
  5. Blakely WF (2008) Early Biodosimetry Response: Recommendations for Mass­Casualty Radiation Accidents and Terrorism. Refresher Course for the 12th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, October 19–24, 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina, accessible at website: http://www.irpa12.org.ar/PDF/RC/RC_12_fullpaper.pdf
  6. Straume T, Amundson SA, Blakely WF, Burns FJ, Chen A, Dainiak N, Franklin S, Leary JA, Loftus DJ, Morgan WF, Pellmar TC, StoIc V, Turteltaub KW, Vaughan AT, Wyrobek AJ (2008). Meeting Report-NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop. September 27–28, 2007. Radiation Research 170:393–405.
  7. Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Manglapus GL, Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Grace MB, Prasanna PGS, Sandgren DJ, Ledney GD (2007) Amylase and blood cell count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7), 1164–1170.
  8. Blakely WF, Salter CA, Prasanna PG (2005) Early-response biological dosimetry—recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Physics 89(5):494–504.
  9. Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Grace MB, Prasanna PGS, Solyan DK, and Blakely WF (2005) Medical recording tools for biodosimetry in radiation incidents. Published in the proceedings of the NATO Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel Research Task Group (RTG) 099 Meeting, "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures," Bethesda, MD, USA, June 21–23, 2005. Compact disc: AFRRI CD 05–2.
  10. Waselenko JK, MacVittie TJ, Blakely WF, Pesik N, Wiley AL, Dickerson WE, Tsu H, Confer DL, Coleman N, Seed T, Lowry P, Armitage, JO, Dainiak N: Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group (2004) Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Working Group. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(12):1037–1051.
  11. Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Prasanna PGS, Salomon K, Blakely WF (2004) Biodosimetry tools supporting the recording of medical information during radiation casualty incidents. In: Public Protection from Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Terrorism. Health Physics Society 2004 Summer School, Gaithersberg, MD: Health Physics Society, 481–488.
  12. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Luo L, Muderhwa JM, Miner VL, Prasanna PGS (2003) Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight. Advances in Space Research 31(6):1487–1493.
  13. AFRRI (2003) Medical Management of Radiological Casualties Handbook, Second Edition. Bethesda, MD: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. Blakely WF, van der Schans GP (2002) Biodosimetry tools supporting the recording of medical casualty incidents. In: Seed TM, Blakely WF, Knudson GB, Landauer MR, McClain DE (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Low­Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures, Bethesda, MD, November 8–10, 1999·
  14. Sine RC, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Hawley AL, Prasanna PGS, Grace MB, Goans RE, Greenhill RC, Blakely WF (2001) Biodosimetry Assessment Tool: a postexposure software application for management of radiation accidents. In: Pastel RH, Landauer MR, Knudson GB (eds) International Conference on the Operational Impact of Psychological Casualties from Weapons of Mass Destruction—Proceedings, Bethesda, MD, July 25–27, 2000. Military Medicine 166(12):85–87.
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Cytogenetic biodosimetry papers
  1. Moroni M, Maeda D, Whitnall MH, Bonner WM, Redon CE (2013) Evaluation of the gamma-H2AX assay for radiation biodosimetry in a swine model. Int J Mol Sci. 14:14119–14135, doi:10.3390/ijms140714119.
  2. Fenech M, Kirsch-Volders M, Rossnerova A, Sram R, Romm H, Bolognesi C, Ramakumar A, Soussaline F, Schunck C, Elhajouji A, Anwar W, Bonassi S (2013) HUMN project initiative and review of validation, quality control and prospects for further development of automated micronucleus assays using image cytometry systems. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Mar 15. pii: S1438–4639(13)00017–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.01.008. [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Miura T, Blakely WF (2011) Optimization of calyculin A-induced premature chromosome condensation assay for chromosome aberration studies. Cytometry A. 2011 Nov 3. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.21154. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Redon CE, Nakamura AJ, Gouliaeva K, Rahman A, Blakely WF, Bonner WM (2011) Q(γ-H2AX), an analysis method for partial-body radiation exposure using γ-H2AX in nonhuman primate lymphocytes. Radiat Meas. 46(9):877–881.
  5. Romm H, Wilkins RC, Coleman CN, Lillis-Hearne PK, Pellmar TC, Livingston GK, Awa AA, Jenkins MS, Yoshida MA, Oestreicher U, Prasanna PG (2011) Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: Potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties. J Radiat Res. 175(3):397–404.
  6. Redon CE, Nakamura AJ, Gouliaeva K, Rahman A, Blakely WF, Bonner WM (2010) The use of gamma-H2AX as a biodosimeter for total-body radiation exposure in non-human primates. PLoS ONE 5(11): e15544. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015544.
  7. Prasanna PGS, M. Moroni, and T.C. Pellmar (2010). Triage dose assessment for partial-body exposure: Dicentric analysis. Health Phys. 98(2):244–51.
  8. Blakely WF, Carr Z, Chu M C-M, Dayal-Drager R, Fujimoto K, Hopmeir M, Kulka U, Lillis-Hearne P, Livingston GK, Lloyd DC, Maznyk N, Perez MDR, Romm H, Takashima Y, Voisin P, Wilkins RC, Yoshida MA (2009) WHO 1st Consultation on the Development of a Global Biodosimetry Laboratories Network for Radiation Emergencies (BioDoseNet). Radiation Research 171(1):127–139.
  9. Pathak R, Ramakumar A, Subramanian U, Prasanna PG (2009) Differential radio-sensitivities of human chromosomes 1 and 2 in one donor in interphase- and metaphase-spreads after 60Co gamma-irradiation. BMC Med Phys. 9:6.
  10. Moroni MM, Krasnopolsky K, Subramanian U, Martin PR, Doherty KM, Prasanna PGS (2008) Does cell culture type and blood transport temperature affect dicentric yield and radiation dose assessment? J Med CBR Def 6 [online edition].
  11. Wilkins RC, Romm H, Kao TC, Awa AA, Yoshida MA, Livingston GK, Jenkins MS, Oestreicher U, Pellmar TC, Prasanna PG (2008) Interlaboratory comparison of the dicentric chromosome assay for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events. Radiation Research 169(5):551–560.
  12. Martin PR, Berdychevski RE, Subramanian U, BlakelyWF, Prasanna PGS (2007) Sample tracking in an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory for radiation mass casualties. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):1119–1124.
  13. Prasanna PGS, Blakely WF (2004) Premature chromosome condensation in human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes for chromosome aberration analysis using specific whole-chromosome DNA hybridization probes. In: Keohavong P, Grant SG (eds), Methods in Molecular Biology, Molecular Toxicology Protocols, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 49–57.
  14. Prasanna PGS, Muderhwa JM, Miller AC, Grace MB, Salter CA, Blakely WF (2004) Diagnostic Biodosimetry Response for Radiation Disasters: Current Research and Service Activities at AFRRI. Published in the proceedings of the symposium of the Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel of NATO's Research and Technology Organisation, Budapest, Hungary, April 19–21, 2004. Compact disc: RTO-MP­HFM-108, AC/323(HFM-108)TP/55 (ISBN 92-837-1128-9).
  15. Prasanna PGS, Martin PR, Subramanian U, Berdycheviski R, Krasnopolsky K, Duffy KL, Manglapus GL, Landauer MR, Srinivasan V, Boreham D, Hagan MP, Jinaratana V, and Blakely WF (2005) Cytogenetic biodosimetry for radiation disasters: Recent advances. Published in the proceedings of the NATO Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel Research Task Group (RTG) 099 Meeting, "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures," Bethesda, MD, USA, June 21–23, 2005. Compact disc: AFRRI CD 05-2.
  16. Prasanna PGS, Subramanian U, Greenhill RG, Loats H, Jacocks JM, Jackson WE, Blakely WF (2003) Cytogenetic biodosimetry strategy for potential radiation mass casualties. In: Radiation Safety Aspects of Homeland Security and Emergency Response, Proceedings of the 36th Midyear Topical Meeting, Health Physics Society. McLean, VA, 218–223.
  17. Prasanna PGS, Loats H, Gerstenberg HM, Torres BN, Shehata CW, Duffy KL, Floura RS, Khusen AW, Jackson WE, Blakely WF. AFRRI's gamma-ray, x-ray, and fission-neutron calibration curves for the lymphocyte dicentric assay: Application of a metaphase finder system, SP02-1; DTIC: ADM03812
  18. Voisin P, Barquinero F, Blakely B, Lindholm C, Uoyd D, Luccioni C, Miller S, Palitti F, Prasanna PGS, Stephan G, Thierens H, Turai I, Wilkinson D, Wojcik A (2002) Towards a standardization of biological dosimetry by cytogenetics. Cellular and Molecular Biology 48(5):501–504.
  19. Prasanna PGS, Hamel CJC, Escalada ND, Duffy KL, Blakely WF (2002) Biological dosimetry using human interphase peripheral blood lymphocytes. In: Seed TM, Blakely WF, Knudson GB, Landauer MR, McClain DE (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Low-Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures, Bethesda, MD, November 8–10, 1999. Military Medicine 167(2):10–12.
  20. Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Nath J, Prasanna PG, Loats H, Blakely WF (2000) In situ detection of a PCR-synthesized human pancentromeric DNA hybridization probe by color pigment immunostaining: Application for dicentric assay automation. Biotechnic and Histochemistry 75(2):91–98.
  21. Boreham DR, Mitchell REJ, Lausoontornsiri W, Sueblinvong T, Blakely WF, Prasanna PGS (2002) Preliminary risk assessment of the Thailand accident: The experience of an international collaboration. In: Ricks RC, Berger ME, O'Hara FM Jr. (eds), The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: The Clinical Care of Victims. New York/London: Parthenon Publishing: 351–352.
  22. Prasanna PGS, Escalada ND, Blakely WF (2000) Induction of premature chromosome condensation by a phosphatase inhibitor and a protein kinase in unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a simple and rapid technique to study chromosome aberrations using specific whole-chromosome DNA hybridization probes for biological dosimetry. Mutation Research 466:131–141.
  23. Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Loats H, Parton J, Blakely WF, Nath J. Fast-in situ hybridization and immunoenzymatic color pigment detection of mouse bone marrow micronucleus. Biotech Histochem. 1999 May;74(3)111–5.
  24. Blakely WF, Loats H, Prasanna PGS, Gribben SM, Roberge TD, Uoyd DG, Francis DE, Kolanko CJ, Shehata CW, Floura RS, Duffy KL, Pyle MD (1998) Automation of the dicentric assay. In: Ross WM, van der Schans GP, Dhermain J, Peter RU, MacVittie TJ, Seed TM (eds), Proceedings of the Workshop on Assessment, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Ionizing Radiation Injury in Nuclear Environments. Technical Proceedings AC/243 (Panel 8) TP/16. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Headquarters, 6.1-6.21 (official use only).
  25. Prasanna PGS, Garner DC, Khusen AW, Loats H, Shehata CW, Gerstenberg HM, Blakely WF (1998) Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: A real case scenario of diagnostic service supporting the U.S. Armed Forces. In: Ross WM, van der Schans GP, Dhermain J, Peter RU, MacVittie TJ, Seed TM (eds), Proceedings of the Workshop on Assessment, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Ionizing Radiation Injury in Nuclear Environments. Technical Proceedings AC/243 (Panel 8) TP/16. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Headquarters, 5.1–5.10 (official use only).
  26. Kolanko CJ, Prasanna PGS, Nath J, Blakely WF (1998) Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: A real case scenario of diagnostic service supporting the U.S. Armed Forces. In: 1995 Workshop on Assessment, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Ionizing Radiation Injury in Nuclear Environments. Technical Proceedings AC/243 (Panel 8) TP/4. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Headquarters (official use only).
  27. Blakely WF, Prasanna PGS, Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Mosbrook DM, Loats AS, Rippeon TL, Loats H (1997) Application of the premature chromosome condensation assay in simulated partial-body radiation exposures: Evaluation of the use of an automated metaphase-finder. In: Ross WM, Kaffenberger W, Peter R (eds), Proceedings of the Workshop on Assessment, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Ionizing Radiation Injury in Nuclear Environments. Technical Proceedings AC/243 (Panel 8) TP/14. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Headquarters, 9.1–9.25 (official use only).
  28. Prasanna PG, Kolanko CJ, Gerstenberg HM, Blakely WF. Premature chromosome condensation assay for biodosimetry: studies with fission-neutrons. Health Phys. 1997 Apr;72(4):594–600.
  29. Prasanna PGS, Kolanko CJ, Rippeon TL, Loats H, Reeves GI, Blakely WF (1997) Use of the premature chromosome condensation assay for biodosimetry applications. In: Court LA, Lallemand J (eds) L'Homme Blesse, The Proceedings. Radiological Accident: The Injured Victim. Logistic, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Approaches in Case of Accidental Irradiation and Contamination. Le Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, I'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, I'Electricitie de France, 157–169.
  30. Blakely WF, Prasanna PG, Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Mosbrook DM, Loats AS, Rippeon TL, Loats H. Application of the premature chromosome condensation assay in simulated partial-body radiation exposures: evaluation of the use of an automated metaphase-finder. Stem Cells. 1995 May;13 Suppl1:223–30.
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Hematology biodosimetry papers
  1. Blakely WF, Sandgren DJ, Nagy V, Kim S-Y, and Ossetrova NI (2011) Murine partial-body radiation exposure model for biodosimetry studies—Preliminary report. Radiation Measurements 46:898–902.
  2. Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Whitnall MH, Sandgren DJ, Krivokrysenko VI, Shakhov A, Feinstein E (2010) Multiple parameter radiation injury assessment using a nonhuman primate radiation model—biodosimetry applications. Health Phys. 98(2):153–9.
  3. Ossetrova NI, Sandgren DJ, Gallego S, Blakely WF (2010) Combined approach of hematological biomarkers and plasma protein SAA for improvement of radiation dose assessment in triage biodosimetry applications. Health Phys. 98(2):204–8.
  4. Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Manglapus GL, Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Grace MB, Prasanna PGS, Sandgren DJ, Ledney GD (2007) Amylase and blood cell­count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry. Radiation Measurements 42(6-7), 1164–1170.
  5. Grace MB, Muderhwa JM, Salter CA, Blakely WF (2006) Use of a centrifuge-based automated blood cell counter for radiation dose assessment. Military Medicine 171(9):908–912.
  6. Blakely WF, Salter CA, Prasanna PG (2005) Early-response biological dosimetry—recommended Countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Physics 89(5):494–504.
  7. Waselenko JK, MacVittie TJ, Blakely WF, Pesik N, Wiley AL, Dickerson WE, Tsu H, Confer DL, Coleman N, Seed T, Lowry P, Armitage, JO, Dainiak N, Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group (2004) Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Working Group. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(12):1037–1051.
  8. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, Mcleland CB, Luo L, Muderhwa JM, Miner VL, Prasanna PGS (2003) Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight. Advances in Space Research 31(6):1487–1493.
  9. Blakely WF, Grace MB, Muderhwa JM, Prasanna PGS, Miner VL, Jackson WE, Levine IH, Salter CA (2003) Dose assessment based on peripheral blood cell counts-evaluation of a portable blood counter. In: Radiation Safety Aspects of Homeland Security and Emergency Response, Proceedings of the 36th Midyear Topical Meeting, Health Physics Society. McLean, VA, 224–228.
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Nucleic acid biodosimetry papers
  1. Budworth H, Snijders AM, Marchetti F, Mannion B, Bhatnagar S, Kwoh E, Tan Y, Wang SX, Blakely WF, Coleman M, Peterson L, Wyrobek AJ (2012) DNA repair and cell cycle biomarkers of radiation exposure and inflammation stress in human blood. PLoS One. 7:e48619.
  2. Grace MB, Blakely WF (2007) Transcription of five P53-and Stat-3-inducible genes after ionizing radiation. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):1147-1151.
  3. Grace MB, Blakely WF, Landauer MR (2007) Genistein-induced alterations of radiation-responsive gene expression. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):1152–1157.
  4. Grace MB, Salter CA, Bullard JR, Prasanna PGS, Manglapus GL, and Blakely WF (2005) Gene-expression biomarkers for application to high-throughput radiation biodosimetry. Published in the proceedings of the NATO Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel Research Task Group (RTG) 099 Meeting, "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures," Bethesda, MD, USA, June 21–23, 2005. Compact disc: AFRRI CD 05-2.
  5. Amundson SA, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Epperly MW, Yeager A, Zhan Q, Greenberger JS, Fornace AJ Jr. (2004) Human in vivo radiation-induced biomarkers: gene expression changes in radiotherapy patients. Cancer Research 64(18):6368–71.
  6. Grace MB, McLeland CB, Gagliardi SJ, Smith JM, Jackson WE III, Blakely WF (2003) Development and assessment of a quantitative reverse transcription-peR assay for simultaneous measurement of four amplicons. Clinical Chemistry 49(9):1467–1475.
  7. Pogozelski WK, Hamel CJC, Woeller CE, Jackson III WE, Zullo SJ, Fischel-Ghodsian N, Blakely WF (2003) Quantification of total mitochondrial DNA and the 4977-bp common deletion in Pearson's syndrome lymphoblasts using a fluorogenic 5'­nuclease (TaqMan™) real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and plasmid external calibration standards. Mitochondria 2(6):415–427.
  8. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Luo L, Lukas J, Hornby ZD, Hamel CJC, Nelson JT, Escalada ND, Prasanna PGS (2002) Nucleic acid molecular biomarkers for diagnostic biodosimetry applications: Use of the fluorogenic 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. Military Medicine 167(2):16–19.
  9. Miller AC, Luo L, Chin WK, Director-Myska AE, Prasanna PG, Blakely WF (2002). Proto­oncogene expression: a predictive assay for radiation biodosimetry applications. Radiat Prot Dosimetry (1–4):295–302.
  10. Grace MB, McLeland CB, Blakely WF (2002) Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay of GADD45 gene expression changes as a biomarker for radiation biodosimetry. Int'l Journal of Radiation Biology 78(11):111–21.
  11. Director-Myska AE, Pogozelski WK, Lofts RS, Prasanna PG, Hamel CJ, Blakely WF (2001). Quantitative plasmid mixture analysis using the fluorogenic 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 37(2):147–54.
  12. Blakely WF, Prasanna PG, Grace MB, Miller AC (2001) Radiation exposure assessment using cytological and molecular biomarkers. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 97(1):17–23.
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Proteomic biodosimetry papers
  1. Kim D, Marchetti F, Chen Z, Zaric S, Wilson RJ, Hall DA, Gaster RS, Lee JR, Wang J, Osterfeld SJ, Yu H, White RM, Blakely WF, Peterson LE, Bhatnagar S, Mannion B, Tseng S, Roth K, Coleman M, Snijders AM, Wyrobek AJ, Wang SX (2013) Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation. Sci Rep. 2013 Jul 19;3:2234. doi: 10.1038/srep02234.
  2. Ossetrova NI, Sandgren DJ (2011) Biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Radiation Emergency Medicine at Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan, page 39.
  3. Ossetrova NI, Sandgren DJ, Blakely WF (2011) C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model. Radiation Measurements doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2011.05.021.
  4. Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Whitnall MH, Sandgren DJ, Krivokrysenko VI, Shakhov A, Feinstein E (2010) Multiple parameter radiation injury assessment using a nonhuman primate radiation model—biodosimetry applications. Health Phys. 98(2):153–9.
  5. Ossetrova NI, Blakely WF (2009) Multiple blood-proteins approach for early-response exposure assessment using an in vivo murine radiation model. International Journal of Radiation Biology 85(10):837–850.
  6. Ossetrova NI, Sandgren DJ, Gallego S, Blakely WF (2010) Combined approach of hematological biomarkers and plasma protein SAA for improvement of radiation dose assessment in triage biodosimetry applications. Health Phys. 98(2):204–8.
  7. Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Manglapus GL, Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Grace MB, Prasanna PGS, Sandgren DJ, Ledney GD (2007) Amylase and blood cell­count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry. Radiation Measurements 42(6-7):1164–1170.
  8. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Muderhwa JM, Manglapus GL, Leidel JM, Martinez M, Landauer MR, Grace MB, and Prasanna PGS (2005) Development and validation of radiation-responsive protein bioassays for biodosimetry applications. Published in the proceedings of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors and Medicine (HFM) Panel Research Task Group (RTG) 099 Meeting, "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures," Bethesda, MD, USA, June 21–23,2005. Compact disc: AFRRI CD 05-2.
  9. Ossetrova NI, Farese AM, MacVittie TJ, Manglapus GL, Blakely WF (2007) The use of discriminant analysis for evaluation of early-response multiple biomarkers of radiation exposure using non-human primate 6-Gy whole-body radiation model. Radiation Measurements 42(6–7):1158–1163.
  10. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Luo L, Muderhwa JM, Miner VL, Prasanna PGS (2003) Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight. Advances in Space Research 31(6):1487–1493.
  11. Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Muderhwa JM, Prasanna PGS (2003) Dose assessment based on molecular biomarkers. In: Radiation Safety Aspects of Homeland Security and Emergency Response, Proceedings of the 36th Midyear Topical Meeting, Health Physics Society, McLean, VA, 229–234.
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Urinary biomarker papers
  1. Johnson CH, Patterson AD, Krausz KW, Kalinich JF, Tyburski JB, Kang DW, Luecke H, Gonzalez FJ, Blakely WF, Idle JR (2012) Radiation Metabolomics. 5. Identification of Urinary Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Nonhuman Primates by Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics. Radiat Res. 178:328–340.
2011 NATO-RTO Technical Reports
  1. Blakely WF (2011) Early Biodosimetry Response: Recommendations for Mass-Casualty Radiation Accidents and Terrorism. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 7, pp: 7–1 to 7–32), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  2. Blakely WF, King GL, Ossetrova NI Port M (2011) Molecular Biomarkers of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Radiation Injury. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 5, pp: 5–1 to 5–22), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  3. Chang CM, Ghosh SP, Grace MB, Hauer-Jensen M, Kao T-C, Kumar KS, Landauer MR, Miller AC, Mog SR, Pellmar TC, Singh VK, Srinivasan V, Whitnall MH, and Xiao M (2011) Prophylaxis and Therapy. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 9, pp: 9–1 to 9–22), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  4. Miller AC (2011) Development of Models to Study Radiation-Induced Late Effects. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 2, pp: 2–1 to 2–10), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  5. Moroni M, Martin PR, Subramanian U, and Krasnopolsky K (2011) High-Throughput Robotic Blood Handling and Cytogenetic Sample Preparation. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 8, pp: 8–1 to 8–18), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  6. Pellmar TC (2011) Combined Injury: Radiation in Combination with Trauma, Infectious Disease, or Chemical Exposures. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 12, pp: 12–1 to 12–16), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  7. Wilkinson D, Hérodin FJ, Abend M, Janiak MK, Stricklin DL, Holt DCB, Blakely WF, Lillis-Hearne PK, Miller AC, Pellmar TC, Whitnall MH (2011) Summary of Activities. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 1, pp: 1–1 to 1–8), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
  8. Wilkinson D, Waller E, Abend M, Riecke A, Ruf C, Jaworska A, Stricklin DL, Holt DCB, Rothkamm K, Blakely WF, Buddemeier BR, Curling CA, Disraelly DS, Homann S, Levine IH, Millage K, Nasstrum JS, Nemhauser JB, Ross JA, Sandgren DJ, Sugiyama G (2011) Biodosimetry and Biomarkers for Radiological Emergency Response. In "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures" (Chapter 6, pp: 6–1 to 6–22), Blakely WF, Janiak MK, Edwards K, Duffy F (Eds.), Technical Report, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Research and Technology Organization, Human Factors and Medicine-099 RTO-TR-HFM-099, AC/323(HFM-099)TP/356, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int — Use the Publications drop-down menu to select RTO-TR Technial Reports. Enter "Blakely" into Author(s) field, then click Search. Click "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures". Request a copy of this report via NATO national distribution centers.
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